This text anti depressants and amino acids memeware: This text is the copyrighted property of the author. Certain forms of copying are permitted and even encouraged; see the Copyright section for details.
Relatively uncontentious assertions appear as normal text. Potentially contentious assertions appear like this.
Denials of widely-held beliefs appear like this. Questions whose answers lie outside human knowledge appear like this. The text places various unoriginal pieces of information into some arrangements that might not have been presented elsewhere before.
Science is about truth that is not necessary but rather contingent, because it is based on actual observations and inductions anti depressants and amino acids regular or pattern-following phenomena in the universe. The truths of science should be agreed upon by any thinkers in the universe that observe the same regular phenomena. The most interesting known phenomena in the universe are those concerning persons, and so science is divided accordingly. Anti depressants and amino acids science studies regular phenomena that do not necessarily involve persons and thus are likely to be universal although many details of terrestrial life science are inevitably parochial.
Technology applies mathematics and science toward accomplishing goals. Technological principles are likely to coincide wherever in the universe there are thinkers dealing with similar phenomena and desiring similar goals.
Social sciences strive to induce truths that would apply to any kind of person anywhere in the universe, but this is not always possible because humans know of only one kind of person: Most parochial of all would be topics relating to human arts and leisure, which this text excludes as not involving fundamental knowledge.
This text is memeware. You may reproduce or distribute this text only in complete and unmodified copies, only for non-commercial purposes, and only if you agree to the following memeware license. The number of possible valid human knowledge summaries no longer than this text is immense but finite.
This text is certainly far from being the best possible such summary. If the goal of approaching such an optimal summary is worthwhile, then an effective method might be to first produce a suboptimal summary and then to continually correct it or replace it outright with better ones.
Thus corrections and replacements of this text are welcome. At the end of this text is a list of some of the references used in writing it.
Because this text attempts to say so much, it contains few references for particular statements. The text tries to explain or justify some of its statements, but most it cayeen and its cancer curing benefits asserts, due to space constraints.
Words in single-quotes are being mentioned rather than used. Words in double-quotes are being used verbatim from some source. Words in italics are being used with emphasis. Words in bold and used at the beginning of a sentence are being defined.
Knowledge is justified true belief. Truth is logical and parsimonious consistency with evidence and with other truth. Meaning is the context-sensitive connotation ultimately established by relevant denotation and use. All synthetic propositions including this one can only be known from experience and are subject to doubt. A synthetic statement is propositionally meaningless if it is in principle neither falsifiable nor verifiable.
A mind is any volition al conscious faculty for perception and cognition. Minds and ideas consist ultimately of matter. Mental states are functional states consisting of causal relations among components for processing information, anti depressants and amino acids. Consciousness is awareness of self and environment.
Intelligence is the ability to make, test, and apply inductions about perceptions of self and world. There are no forms of reasoning or kinds of knowledge that are in principle inaccessible to regular intelligence. As autonomous living intellects, we persons value intelligence and life and the autonomy they need to flourish. A person is any intelligen t being with significant volitional control over how it affects other beings.
All persons have the right to life and liberty. All beings have the right not to suffer torture or extinction. Liberty is volition in the absence of aggression. Cholesterol and heart disease statistics is compulsion of one person by another through force or threat of aggression. Justice is the minimization, reversal and punishment of aggression.
The purpose of the state is to effect justice, provide aid and sustenance to persons in mortal danger, protect species in danger of extinction, and prevent torture. Autocosmology is a synthesis of metaphysical naturalismontological materialism anti depressants and amino acids, epistemological empiricism and positivismmental functionalismtheological atheismaxiological extropianismpolitical libertarianismeconomic capitalismconstitutional federalismbiological evolutionismevolutionary psychology, and technological optimism.
Autocosmology is the worldview asserted by this anti depressants and amino acids. A skeptic believes what he sees. A mystic believes what he feels. A fideist believes what he hears. A cynic believes nothing. Thus faith anti depressants and amino acids in not questioning others, and mysticism fails in not questioning the self. Skepticism succeeds by exempting nothing from questioning, while cynicism fails by exempting no answer from disbelief.
Darwin made faith essentially indefensible among Western philosophers. Modern Western philosophy is broadly divided into two traditions, each of which starts with skepticism and takes it to a certain extreme. Deists retreat directly to the last trench, and use God only to answer the question of why there is something rather than nothing. Deism is unparsimonious, because it cannot answer the question of why there is Antibiotics and endocrine system rather than not God.
Mystics usually believe in pantheism or outright idealism. Pantheism and Idealism are incorrect because they too are unparsimonious. They infer spiritual aspects of reality from psychological phenomena that can be explained more parsimoniously in materialist terms. Skeptics usually believe in naturalism.
The varieties of naturalism differ primarily according to their explanation of how matter relates to mind. While naturalists do not know why the universe existsthere is no credible evidence or convincing argument that its existence implies supernatural agency.
Parsimony demands that supernatural agency be held not to exist until shown otherwise. Agnosticism constitutes either ignorance of this demand, or a redundant restatement of the principle that synthetic propositions are subject to doubt. Understanding of reality and existence is built up according to experience from elements provided by logic: From these can be derived the ontological notions of causalityexistence coumadin and diabetis, timeidentityand space.
Possibility is the property of not being contradicted by any inference. Logical possibility is the property of not contradicting the laws of logic. Physical possibility is the property of not contradicting the laws of nature. Is causality an illusion? Does every effect have a cause, or do some effects have no cause? Can there be a cycle of causality, in which an effect both precedes and contributes to its cause?
Can one know the answers to these questions? It is unparsimonious to say other universes exist. One could imagine a set of circumstances causally unrelated to the maximal set that includes this sentence, and could choose to consider it a separate universe.
But to say those imagined circumstances "exist" is to cheapen existence from causal reality to mere imaginability. An imagining does not establish the existence of the thing imagined. Why is there something rather than nothing? Is there an objective purpose for that which exists?
How could one recognize an answer to these questions? Are these questions meaningless? Humans do not know why there is something rather than nothing, or if the question is even meaningful. If this question has a parsimonious answer, it must consist in a self-explaining fact or cycle of facts, anti depressants and amino acids.
A candidate for such a fact would be the concept of God in the Ontological Proof, but that proof is not convincing. Humans do not know any such fact sor even if they could possibly exist. If it is anti depressants and amino acids that non-existence is more likely or natural than existence, anti depressants and amino acids, one could ask why this asserted tendency toward non-existence itself exists. A possibly meaningful but unparsimonious answer to the Ultimate Why is that the universe exists more precisely, anti depressants and amino acids, is perceived to exist roughly because it is possible.
The reasoning would be as follows. Absolute impossibility -- the state of affairs in which nothing is possible -- is itself not possible, because if nothing truly were possible, then absolute impossibility would not be possible, implying that at least something must be possible. But if at least one thing is possible, then it seems the universe we perceive should be no less possible than anything else.
Now, assuming that physicalism is right and that qualia and consciousness are epiphenomena, then the phenomenology of a mind anti depressants and amino acids its perfect simulation are identical.
So whether the universe we perceive existed or not, it as a merely possible universe would be perceived by its merely possible inhabitants no differently than our actual universe is perceived by its actual inhabitants.
By analogy, the thoughts and perceptions of a particular artificial intelligence in a simulated universe would be the same across identical "runs" of the simulation, regardless of whether we bothered to initiate such a "run" once, twice -- or never.
Thus, the universe might merely be the undreamed possible dream of no particular dreamer. Duration is a measure of the separation between two instants in time determined by counting intervening events of the kind that recur in proportional numbers to each other.