Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, procedures, news and more, written in everyday language. In general, drugs should not be used during pregnancy unless necessary because many can harm the fetus. Sometimes drugs are essential for the health of the pregnant woman and the fetus, aspartame and zyprexa interactions.
In such cases, a aspartame and zyprexa interactions should talk with her doctor or other health care practitioner about the risks and benefits of taking the drug. Before taking any drug including over-the-counter drugs or dietary supplement including medicinal herbsa pregnant woman should consult her health care practitioner. A health care practitioner may recommend that a woman take certain vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Drugs that a pregnant woman takes during pregnancy can affect the fetus in several ways:.
They can act directly on the fetus, causing damage, abnormal development leading to birth defectsor death. They can alter the function of the placenta, usually by causing blood vessels to narrow constrict and thus reducing the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the aspartame and zyprexa interactions from the mother, aspartame and zyprexa interactions.
Sometimes the result is a baby that is underweight and underdeveloped. They can cause the muscles of the uterus to contract forcefully, indirectly injuring the fetus by reducing its blood supply or triggering preterm labor and delivery.
They can also affect the fetus indirectly. The genetic make-up of the mother, which affects how much of the drug is active and available. An increased risk of childhood canceras may result from giving the mother radioactive iodine to treat thyroid cancer or using a radioactive substance in an imaging test such as radionuclide scanning.
Until recently, the Food and Drug Administration FDA classified drugs into five categories according to the degree of risk they pose for the fetus if they are used during pregnancy. Drugs were classified from those with the least risk to those that are highly toxic and should never be used by pregnant women because they cause severe birth defects.
One example is thalidomide. Aspartame and zyprexa interactions drug causes extreme underdevelopment of arms and legs and defects of the intestine, heart, and blood vessels in the babies of women who take the drug during pregnancy.
For example, some drugs such as meclizine cause birth defects in animals, but the same effects have not been seen in people. Taking meclizine for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy does not appear to increase the risk of having a baby with a birth defect.
The classification system was based much less often on well-designed studies in pregnant women because few such studies have been done. Thus, applying the classification system in specific situations was difficult.
Because of this problem, the FDA eliminated the five risk categories. Instead, the FDA now requires that the drug label include more specific information, which includes the following:. Information to help health care practitioners decide whether the drug should be used during pregnancy and to help them explain the risks and benefits of using the drug to the woman.
They consider giving a pregnant woman a drug to treat a disorder only when the potential benefit outweighs known risks. Often, a safer drug can be substituted for one that is likely to cause harm during pregnancy. For prevention of blood clots, the anticoagulant heparin is preferred to warfarin. Several safe antibiotics, such as penicillin, are available to treat infections. Some drugs can have effects after they are stopped.
For example, isotretinoina drug used to treat skin disorders, is stored in fat beneath the skin and is released slowly. Isotretinoin can cause birth defects if women become pregnant within 2 weeks after the drug is stopped, aspartame and zyprexa interactions. Therefore, women are advised to wait at least 3 to 4 weeks after the drug is stopped before they become pregnant. Benzodiazepines such as diazepamalprazolamor lorazepam. When the drug is taken late in pregnancy, very slow breathing, irritability, shaking, and exaggerated reflexes in the aspartame and zyprexa interactions. Aminoglycosides such as amikacingentamicinneomycinstreptomycinand tobramycin.
In women or fetuses with G6PD deficiencythe breakdown of red blood cells. Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacinofloxacinlevofloxacinand norfloxacin. Sulfonamides such as sulfasalazine and trimethoprim - sulfamethoxazole. When the drugs are given late in pregnancy, jaundice aspartame and zyprexa interactions, without treatment, brain damage kernicterus in the newborn. Defects of the brain and spinal cord neural tube defectssuch as spina bifida.
Factor Xa inhibitors such as rivaroxabanapixabanor edoxaban. Thrombocytopenia a decrease in the number of platelets, aspartame and zyprexa interactions, which help blood clot in the pregnant woman, possibly resulting in excessive bleeding.
Bleeding problems in aspartame and zyprexa interactions newborn hemorrhagic disease of the newbornwhich can be prevented if pregnant women take vitamin K by mouth every day for a month before delivery or if the newborn is given an injection of vitamin K soon after birth.
Possible risk of birth defects such as cleft lip or cleft palate. High risk of birth defects such as cleft palate and defects of the heart, skull, face, hands, and abdomen. Some risk of birth defects, including cleft palate, neural tube defects such as a meningomyeloceleand defects of the heart, face, skull, spine, and limbs. When paroxetine is taken during the 1st trimester, increased risk of birth defects, particularly heart defects. Antiemetic drugs used to relieve nausea.
When ondansetron is taken during the aspartame and zyprexa interactions trimester, possible risk of congenital heart disease. When high doses are taken for most or all of the 1st trimester, increased aspartame and zyprexa interactions of birth defects, such as abnormalities in the heart, face, skull, ribs, and limbs. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitors see Table: When the drugs are taken late in pregnancy, kidney damage aspartame and zyprexa interactions the fetus, a reduction in the amount of fluid around the developing fetus amniotic fluidand defects of the face, limbs, and lungs.
When some beta-blockers are taken during pregnancy, a slowed heart rate, a low blood sugar level, and possibly slowed growth in the fetus. Inadequate growth before birth growth restriction. Aldosterone antagonists drugs that block the action of the hormone aldosteronesuch as spironolactone and eplerenone. With spironolactonepossible development of feminine characteristics in male fetuses. With eplerenoneno increased risk of birth defects in animals, but no well-designed studies done in pregnant women.
Irritability and shaking symptoms of drug withdrawal in the newborn because at birth, passage of the drug from the mother through the placenta stops. No evidence of increased risk of birth defects, but colon cancer and papaye well-designed studies done in pregnant women.
Restlessness, stiff or limp muscles, aspartame and zyprexa interactions, shaking, breathing difficulties, and sleeping and feeding problems in the newborn. Birth defects such as underdevelopment of the lower jaw, cleft palate, abnormal development of the skull bones, spinal defects, ear defects, and clubfoot. Lethargy, reduced muscle tone, poor feeding, underactivity of the thyroid gland, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in the newborn.
When the drugs are taken late in pregnancy, a reduction in the amount of fluid around the developing fetus. When low doses of aspirin are taken, no significant risk of birth defects. No evidence of increased risk of birth defects but may have other harmful effects on the fetus or newborn.
If high doses are given in the hour before delivery, possibly drowsiness and a slowed heart rate in the newborn. Oral antihyperglycemic hypoglycemic drugs. Birth defects, such as heart defects, small ears, and hydrocephalus sometimes called water on the brain. When the drug is given near the end of the 1st trimester, a very overactive and enlarged thyroid gland in the fetus. Increased risk of childhood cancer. Vaccine for German measles rubella and vaccine for chickenpox varicella.
Vaccines for measles, mumpspolioor yellow fever. Possibly in sons, a birth defect of the urethra in which the opening of the urethra is in the wrong place hypospadias. Narrowing of the blood vessels in the placenta, possibly reducing the amount of oxygen and nutrients the fetus receives and thus resulting in inadequate growth before birth.
Possible risk of a defect in the wall of the abdomen that allows the intestines to protrude outside the body called gastroschisis. However, drugs can be essential to maintain the health of the pregnant woman and the fetus. In such cases, a woman should talk with her health care practitioner about the risks and benefits of the prescription drugs she is taking before she stops taking them.
She should not stop taking them on her own. However, aspartame and zyprexa interactions, aspartame and zyprexa interactions also cause an exaggerated sense of well-being, and if aspartame and zyprexa interactions too much, they can cause dependence and addiction.
Vaccines made with a live virus such as the rubella and varicella vaccines are not given to women who are or might be pregnant. Other vaccines such as those for cholera, hepatitis A and Aspartame and zyprexa interactions, plague, rabies, and typhoid are claritin d and impotence to pregnant women only arthritis and fasting they are at substantial risk of developing that particular infection.
However, all pregnant women who are in the 2nd or 3rd trimester during the influenza flu season should be vaccinated against the influenza virus. All pregnant women should be given the tetanus-diphtheria-pertussis Tdap vaccine between 27 and 36 weeks of each pregnancy.
This vaccine protects against pertussis whooping cough. Drugs to lower high blood pressure antihypertensives may be needed by pregnant women who have had high blood pressure before pregnancy or who develop it during pregnancy. Either type of high blood pressure increases the risk of problems for the woman such as preeclampsia and for the fetus see High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy, aspartame and zyprexa interactions. However, antihypertensives can markedly reduce blood flow to the placenta if they lower blood pressure too rapidly in pregnant women.
So pregnant women who have to take these drugs are closely monitored. Several types of antihypertensives, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitors and thiazide diuretics, are usually not given to pregnant women.
These drugs can cause serious problems in the fetus, such as kidney damage, inadequate growth before birth growth restrictionand birth aspartame and zyprexa interactions. Spironolactone is also not given to pregnant women. This drug may cause the development of feminine characteristics feminization in a male fetus, aspartame and zyprexa interactions. Use of thiazide diuretics during pregnancy is controversial.
They are not the first antihypertensive used. Digoxinused to treat heart failure and some abnormal heart rhythmsreadily crosses the placenta. But at the usual doses, digoxin typically has little effect on the baby before or after birth, aspartame and zyprexa interactions. Antidepressantsparticularly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs such as paroxetineare commonly used during pregnancy.
For pregnant women, the benefits of treating depression usually outweigh the risks.