An interactive resource for moms on easy steps they can take to reduce exposure to chemical toxins during pregnancy. Other excellent resources about avoiding toxins during pregnancy These are easy to read and understand and are beautifully presented. Subsections on this page: All babies need ongoing oral vitamin K at least weekly for three months.
Ten years ago, Hey b observed that policies around vitamin K administration had been dictated more by what manufacturers decided to market than by any kind of informed understanding of what babies need. A Danish study revealed no cases of VKDB in aboutbabies who received weekly oral prophylaxis of 1 mg per week from birth until breast fed babies and vitamin supplements reached three months of age Hansen et al No cases of VKDB were revealed, i. Weekly oral vitamin K supplementation during the first 3 mo of life was an efficient prophylaxis against VKBD.
Parental compliance with the regimen was good. Parental compliance is bolstered by having them program a weekly reminder into their computer calendar. Epub Nov This report summarizes the new guidelines acceptance by Swiss pediatricians and the results of a prospective 6-year surveillance to study their influence on the incidence of VKDB.
The new guidelines acceptance by Swiss pediatricians was evaluated by a questionnaire sent to all pediatricians of the Swiss Society of Paediatrics. Over a 6-year periodlive birthsthere was one case of early and four cases of late VKDB, breast fed babies and vitamin supplements. Overall incidence was 1. Late VKDB incidence was 0. This article has some interesting observations about the issues of thermoregulation and thrombosis. The authors postulate that "increases in platelets, red cells and viscosity associated with normal thermoregulatory adjustments to mild surface cooling provides a probable explanation for rapid increases in coronary and cerebral thrombosis in cold weather" keating et al, Anaphylactic shock due to vitamin K in a newborn and review of literature.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. They are less likely to develop anaphylaxis since their immune system is weaker than older infants and children. There are only a few reports of side effects after vitamin K injection in neonates although breast fed babies and vitamin supplements against hemorrhagic disease of the newborn with this drug has been in routine practice in all over the world for many years.
We herein report a case of anaphylactic shock developing after the intramuscular administration of vitamin K1 in a newborn.
To our knowledge, this patient is the first case of neonatal anaphylactic shock developing due to intramuscular administration of vitamin K1. We suggest breast fed babies and vitamin supplements clinicians should be aware of breast fed babies and vitamin supplements possibility of potentially fatal adverse effect occurring with intramuscular administration of vitamin K1.
Epub Mar Nicolau syndrome NSalso known as livedo-like dermatitis or embolia cutis medicamentosa, is a very rare complication of intramuscular and intraarticular injection of various drugs, breast fed babies and vitamin supplements. We herein report a case of NS developing approximately 2 h after the intramuscular administration of vitamin K1 in an extremely low birth weight premature newborn.
To our knowledge, this patient is the youngest case suffering from such a livedoid skin necrosis and the first case of neonatal NS developing due to intramuscular administration of vitamin K1. We report the case of a 6-week-old female who presented an intracranial hemorrhage due to late vitamin K deficiency bleeding VKDB.
No other evident bleeding sites were present at the moment of diagnosis. Intramuscular vitamin K 1 mg was administered at birth.
She was exclusively breast-fed. No other risk factors for VKDB were detected. Low levels of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors and their breast fed babies and vitamin supplements after vitamin K administration confirmed the diagnosis breast fed babies and vitamin supplements late VKDB. The present case suggests potential risks related to a single dose of intramuscular vitamin K at birth.
The forces of nature are so focused on a successful birth that it just seems unlikely that all babies are deficient in vitamin K. Instead of simply accepting that nature goofed about clotting factors in newborns, I thought about all the ways that interventions at birth interfere breast fed babies and vitamin supplements the normal physiological birth process regarding clotting. As someone who does Newborn Screening heelsticks on newborns whose umbilical cords were not cut prematurely and some of whom did not receive supplemental vitamin KI can tell you that they have no trouble clotting normally.
This solves the problem of early-onset or classical HDN. Women who eat lots of fresh, leafy green vegetables will pass the vitamin K through to their babies, and this will protect them from late-onset HDN. So, maybe nature got it right, after all, and all we have to do is support physiological health by waiting at least 5 minutes after the birth to cut the cord and by encouraging nursing mothers to eat lots of fresh, leafy green vegetables or take a vitamin K supplement.
Some maternal medications interfere with vitamin K, such as anticonvulsants, anticoagulants, and antibiotics. Other risk factors include diarrhea, hepatitis, cystic fibrosis CFceliac disease, and alpha1-antitrypin deficiency, breast fed babies and vitamin supplements.
Prophylactic vitamin K for vitamin K deficiency bleeding in neonates Cochrane Review. Vitamin K at Birth: She also discusses breast fed babies and vitamin supplements vitamin K could disrupt the regulation of cell growth, which might lead to leukemia or other childhood cancers. By a pure fluke a 1 mg IM dose, designed to prevent early vitamin deficiency bleeding "haemorrhagic disease of the newborn" has been found to protect against late deficiency bleeding-a condition unrecognised at the time this policy took hold.
Alternative strategies for oral prophylaxis are now opening up see pp andbut these are also, breast fed babies and vitamin supplements, at the moment, dictated more by what the manufacturers choose to provide than by what would make for ease of delivery either in poor countries, or in the developed world. From the full-text paper:. That babies have very limited reserves of vitamin K at birth, breast fed babies and vitamin supplements, and that some will soon bleed if a continuing intake is not guaranteed.
We also know that a few "supplements" of cows milk50 or formula milk14 can suffice to restock those reserves, and that there is really no case for giving the healthy, artificially fed, baby further supplementation, either by injection or by mouth, other than administrative convenience, breast fed babies and vitamin supplements. Babies who are not fed, and a very small number of fully breast fed babies, will develop symptomatic deficiency.
Without prophylaxis the risk of early easily recognised bleeding in a healthy non-traumatised term baby in the first two weeks of life is probably only 1—2 in a thousand. The risk of a later potentially more dangerous bleed is perhaps a third of that. Both these risks can be virtually eliminated by giving a single 1 mg intramuscular "depot" injection of phytomenadione, or by giving the baby 1 mg by mouth once a week for the first three months of life.
Indeed the only babies not protected by four 1 mg or three 2 mg oral doses, if well spaced out, are those with some as yet unrecognised liver disease. Care and service provision in the postpartum period. Care in the first hours includes: However, the evidence for routine administration of vitamin K to all newborns to prevent the relatively rare haemorrhagic disease of the newborn is still lacking. It occurs to breast fed babies and vitamin supplements that WHO has much more exposure to physiological birth practices than other evidence-based recommendations bodies, such as the Cochrane Collaboration.
The push for the Vitamin K - National standard mandates newborn vitamin K injection. Ignorance becomes tacit consent for the questionable neonatal procedure by Don Harkins [Ed: The purpose of vitamin K is to increase the clotting factors for a newborn.
But is that always a good idea? This web page on Polycythemia of the Newborn reminds us that increased clottng factors can cause blood clots and decreased tissue oxygenation. This is especially true with a higher blood plasma volume, as occurs when the cord is left intact for a few minutes after birth and the baby naturally plumps up its circulatory system.
Some very recent studies in The Lancet have associated increased clotting with twice the likelihood of death from bacterial meningitis. These higher clotting factors may increase the risk from all bacterial infections.
This would mean that increased clotting from vitamin K would increase susceptibility from this same effect. Breast fed babies and vitamin supplements findings do not indicate that genetics influence the chances of contracting meningococcal disease, but rather that those who get it are more likely to progress to deadly septic shock.
Genetic basis for meningococcal septic shock - Summary, breast fed babies and vitamin supplements. Variation in plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 gene and risk of meningococcal septic shock, breast fed babies and vitamin supplements. However, an injection creates an avenue of infection for a newborn with an immature immune system in an environment that contains the most dangerous germs.
At the very least, the injection should be delayed until after the baby has learned to nurse. Some studies have shown a lower incidence of SIDS among breastfed babies, and we know that breastmilk is lower in vitamin K. It may be that when a baby is allowed to receive all its blood from the placenta, the coagulation factors are more than adequate to prevent hemorrhage. Given the study that claims that vitamin K levels are not associated with clotting factors, it might be that the best thing parents can do to prevent hemorrhage in newborns is to insist that their babies be allowed to get all their blood back from the placenta after birth.
Those would seem to be the clotting factors of greatest use to the baby. Maybe the association between traumatic birth and newborn hemorrhagic disease is really an association between traumatic birth and early cutting of the cord, breast fed babies and vitamin supplements, which is more likely with a traumatic birth where the baby is rushed across the room for resuscitation.
Foleyparalleland John W. A minority of committee members believe that physicians should have the option to recommend oral administration of vitamin K for newborns under their care. Use of the parenteral form of vitamin K for oral administration is all that is currently available. This should be repeated at two to four weeks and six to eight weeks of age.
Parents should be advised of the importance of the baby receiving follow-up doses and be cautioned that their infants remain at an increased risk of late HDNB including the potential for intracranial hemorrhage using this regimen. It has been suggested that if the mother takes oral Vit K, during the last trimester, that there would not be a need for the newborn shot.
Anyone know of a study related to this? I have seen a number of clients in this area that choose to take the prenatal Vit K in order to avoid the shot for their newborn. There really is little known about the physiologic process of vitamin k absorption and blood factor response. Supplementation was started before the norms were known -- and the dosage was set almost at random with little research first. Plasma concentrations after oral or intramuscular vitamin K1 in neonates.
Venous blood samples collected in the next 24 hours were assayed for plasma vitamin K1. Since median plasma vitamin K1 concentrations 24 hours after oral administration were some times and times greater than previously estimated adult and newborn values respectively, this study supports giving vitamin K1 orally at birth to well, mature babies to protect against early haemorrhagic disease of the newborn.
Further studies are needed to determine the optimum dose for protection over subsequent weeks. Neonates on exclusive breast feeding that do not receive vitamin K at birth are at higher risk hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.
Forty healthy full term infants, distributed in two groups, A: Nine infants of each group received 1 mg of VK1 intramuscularly and eleven 2 mg VK orally 5 ml of cord blood was collected initially from each infant. Venous blood samples were cortisol and weight loss research on 15, 30 and 60 days of age.
Factor II increased more in children with mixed feeding that received intramuscular vitamin K, than in the rest of study groups.