An erratum has been published for this article. To view the erratum, please click here. Although substantial progress has been made in improving the health of persons in the United States, serious problems remain to cancer morbidity rate canada and us solved.
Life expectancy is increasing, cancer morbidity rate canada and us, and the rates of the leading causes of death are improving in many cases; however, numerous indicators i. This report reviews population health in the United States and provides an assessment of recent progress in meeting high-priority health objectives.
The health status indicators described in this report were selected because of their direct relation to the leading causes of death and other substantial sources of morbidity and mortality and should be the focus of prevention efforts, cancer morbidity rate canada and us.
Data are reported starting in or the earliest available year since through the current data year. Because data sources and specific indicators vary regarding when data are available, the most recent year for which data are available might range from to Description of the System: Data from the following CDC surveillance systems and surveys were used: Three non-CDC sources were used: Sincelife expectancy at birth in the U. The years of potential life lost declined for eight of the 10 leading causes of death.
Heart disease, stroke, and deaths attributed to motor-vehicle injuries demonstrated notable declines since The number of deaths from drug poisoning increased by approximately 11, and the number cancer morbidity rate canada and us deaths among older adults caused by falls increased by approximately 7, Risk and protective factors for these leading causes of death also showed mixed progress.
Control of blood pressure and cholesterol increased to During the —13 influenza season, vaccination rates reached highs of Other important measures of the health of the U.
Rates of foodborne illness varied from year to year, with average annual increases for Salmonella and Salmonella serotype Enteritidis. Listeria rates were stable in recent years at 0. The percentage of persons living with HIV who know their serostatus increased to Chlamydia rates increased by an average of 3. The number of new cases of hepatitis C and hepatitis C—associated deaths increased by an average of 6. Indictors of maternal and child health all improved, including historically low rates of infant mortality 6.
The percentage of infants breastfed at 6 months increased to Among children aged 19—35 months, The findings in this report indicate that progress has been steady but slow for many of cancer morbidity rate canada and us priority health issues in the United States. The age-adjusted rates for most of the leading causes of death are declining, but in some cases, the number of deaths is increasing, in part reflecting the growing U. Several protective factors that have registered substantial average increases e.
Many protective factors, even those with impressive relative gains, still represent only a minority of the U. More data are needed to properly interpret fluctuating trends, such as those observed with the number of HIV infections and HIV transmission rates. Finally, some indicators of disease that appear to be increasing, cancer morbidity rate canada and us as chlamydia and hepatitis C, reflect increased efforts to engage in targeted screening but also suggest that the actual burden of infection is much greater than the reported data alone indicate.
Although not all-inclusive, cancer morbidity rate canada and us, this compilation highlights important health concerns, points to asthma and nsaids in which important success has been achieved, and highlights areas in which more effort is needed. By tracking progress, public health officials, program managers, and decision makers can better identify areas for improvement and institute policies and programs to improve health and the quality of life.
Seven of the 10 leading causes of death are chronic diseases, cancer morbidity rate canada and us, two of which heart disease and cancer account for approximately half of all deaths each year. Much of this health burden could be prevented or postponed through improved nutrition, increased physical activity, improved vaccination rates, avoidance of tobacco use, adoption of measures to increase motor-vehicle safety, early detection and treatment of risk factors, and health-care quality improvement.
Finally, ensuring the well-being of mothers and infants and preventing unintended pregnancies among teenagers are critical public health goals to establish better health of future generations.
The mission of the U. Department of Health and Human Services HHS is to help Americans live healthy, successful lives, including access to high-quality health care; food and drug safety; prevention and control of infectious disease; and improved prevention, detection, and treatment of disease 2.
To that end, HHS manages numerous efforts to track the health and well-being of the U. Healthy People includes an extensive set of goals and objectives with year targets designed to guide national health promotion and disease prevention efforts. This initiative includes 42 topic areas and approximately 1, objectives 5. A smaller set of 26 high-priority objectives, called leading health indicators, has been identified to focus greater attention on an important set of health issues and drive action toward better cancer morbidity rate canada and us 5.
CDC promotes health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability. CDC continually collects and analyzes health data to determine cancer morbidity rate canada and us health outcomes affect specific populations.
CDC also uses these data to evaluate efforts to implement evidence-informed interventions e. CDC maintains multiple surveys and surveillance systems to monitor the leading causes of death, the primary risk and protective factors that affect health, and the progress being made toward improving health outcomes.
These systems provide the foundation for much of the comprehensive reporting found in Health, United States and Healthy People as well as continual detailed analysis of hundreds of specific current and emerging health threats across the country and the world. This report provides a concise review of the health of the U. In this report, health status indicators metrics or measures of observed or calculated data used to show the presence or state of a condition or trend have been compiled to provide a quick assessment on how well the United States is succeeding in addressing high-priority health issues.
These indicators were chosen because of their direct relationship to the leading causes of death and other substantial sources of morbidity and mortality. This report uses data from 17 CDC surveillance systems and three non-CDC sources to identify areas in which greater action is needed to improve health outcomes. It highlights the 10 current leading causes of death and associated behavioral factors.
It presents indicators of health issues that have short- and long-term health implications for the leading causes of death as well as relevant areas in which CDC has invested substantial programmatic support e. Rather, the findings provided in this report are meant to reflect the overall burden of each condition for the United States or a specific population, as well as to highlight progress. The data presented in this report have been compiled from multiple surveillance systems and surveys to provide a comprehensive set of indictors cancer morbidity rate canada and us reflect the status of the health of the U.
Data from the following 17 CDC surveillance systems and surveys were used:. A detailed description of each data source, including the method of data collection; how or whether data have been adjusted for age, race, and other factors; and limitations for each is available at http: The types of data presented for the different indicators vary.
For example, cancer morbidity rate canada and us, each of the current leading causes of death can be viewed for the total U. Different behavioral risk and protective factors might be presented as rates, either for the entire population or a subset; as total numbers, such as the number of new infections, or the number of units of measurement of consumption; or as a percentage of a specified population, such as those with a health condition who have it under control.
For each indicator, the absolute difference and the percentage change between each data point and the prior data point are provided. Absolute differences indicate the arithmetic differences between these two data points e. Percentage change is calculated by dividing the absolute difference by the older data point and multiplying by Cancer morbidity rate canada and us noted in this example, the percentage change is substantial If the absolute number were already high, the percentage change from an increase of cases would be much smaller.
An annual percentage change APC was selected as a summary measure for each indicator over the tracked period from or earliest available since to the current data year. The APC characterizes the trend for each indicator over the entire tracked period, while accounting for variability in the relative year-to-year differences. The trend in each indicator is estimated from linear regression on the natural log scale, cancer morbidity rate canada and us. Within this linear regression framework, the percentage change in each indicator is constant each year, equal to the estimated APC 6.
For consistency in the calculation of APC for multiyear data e. As was noted with percentage change, the APC also might appear to be substantial even though, or because, cancer morbidity rate canada and us, the current prevalence of an indicator is low.
The year was selected as a starting point to present recent historic trends across all indicators. Although the frequency at which data are collected varies depending on the data source, cancer morbidity rate canada and us, starting with ensures that even biennial data provide enough data points to calculate an annual percentage change assuming that no cancer morbidity rate canada and us in methodology has taken place since Tests for statistical significance were not conducted on the data provided in this report.
Because data sources and specific indicators vary regarding when data are available, the year for which the most recent data are available might range from to The differing nature of the indicators presented in this report, as well as the limitations associated with each data source, should be considered before comparisons are made across indicators or over time.
The indicators used in this report were selected to highlight health status. One set of indicators is reflective of life expectancy and premature mortality Table 1followed by the 10 current leading causes of death in the United States Table 2. Certain indicators represent health outcomes or chronic conditions with causal links to the leading causes of death i. Each of these chronic conditions has defined evidence-based strategies to address them, such as avoiding tobacco use or binge drinking risk factor or cancer screening protective Table 3.
Other important causes of morbidity and mortality are not linked directly to the 10 current leading causes of death. These include selected infectious diseases, including foodborne illness; types of health-care—associated infections; and priority sexually transmitted infections Table 4.
Life expectancy at birth reported in years reflects the expected average years of life for infants born in a particular year, assuming current age-specific mortality rates stay the same throughout their lifespan. Together, these three variables provide a perspective on the health and longevity of a population with comparable trend data that assess the projected life span for persons born today, current average age at death, and the extent of premature mortality occurring across all ages for the current population.
Changes in each of these indicators reflect broader societal shifts such as decreasing age-specific death rates, increasing average age at death, the evolving size and age pattern of the population, prevalence of illness in a population, postponed onset of disease, and length of time living with a condition.
This demographic shift, combined with a higher life expectancy than was the norm in previous decades, is expected to have a substantial effect on U.
Furthermore, cancer morbidity rate canada and us, because many chronic conditions affect older adults disproportionately, associated health-care costs and use of services also are expected to increase. Medicare spending is expected to nearly double in the next decade as a result of growth in this population and increased health-care costs Life expectancy for infants born in was Life expectancy remained constant in Sincelife expectancy at birth has extended by 1 year, showing an average annual increase of 0.
The increase in life expectancy in recent years is attributable in large part to observed decreases in deaths from heart disease, cancer, and pneumonia and influenza From tothe annual percentage change showed a net decrease of 0. From toage-adjusted YPLL from all causes combined declined. InYPLL reached the low rate of 6, In terms of YPLL, eight of the 10 leading causes of death declined from towith an average annual decrease ranging from 0. For two leading causes of death, YPLL perpopulation registered an average annual increase of 0.