Water diabetes definition of Water diabetes by Medical dictionary https: The massively increased urine output is usually accompanied by intense thirst. The balance of fluid within the body is maintained through a number of mechanisms. One important chemical involved in fluid balance is called antidiuretic hormone ADH. ADH is produced by the pituitary, a small gland located at the base of the brain.
In a healthy person and under normal conditions, ADH is continuously released. ADH influences the amount of fluid that the kidneys reabsorb into the circulatory system and the amount of fluid that the kidneys pass out of the body in the form of urine.
Production of ADH is regulated by the osmolality of the circulating blood. Osmolality refers to the concentration of dissolved chemicals such as sodium, diabetes and free water, potassium, and chloride; together called solute circulating in the fluid base of the blood plasma.
When there is very little fluid compared to the concentration of solute, the pituitary will increase ADH production. This tells the kidneys to retain more water and to decrease the amount of urine produced.
As fluid is retained, the concentration of solute will normalize. At other times, when the fluid content of the blood is high in comparison to the concentration of solute, ADH production will decrease.
The kidneys are then free to pass an increased amount of fluid out of the body in the urine. Again, this will allow the plasma osmolality to return to normal. In either case, a person with DI will pass extraordinarily large quantities of urine, sometimes reaching 10 or more liters each day. DI occurs on average when a person is about 24 years old, diabetes and free water, and occurs more frequently in males than in females.
DI may run in families. The cause of this type of DI is unknown. Other times, central DI can be caused by:. Central DI may also occur in women who are pregnant or have just given birth, and in patients with AIDS who have suffered certain types of brain infections. Nephrogenic DI sometimes occurs in patients who are taking the medication lithium, patients who have high levels of blood calcium, and patients who are pregnant.
DI is easily confused with an entirely unrelated disorder, psychogenic polydipsia. Polydipsia refers to drinking large amounts of water. Psychogenic polydipsia is a psychiatric problem that makes a person drink huge quantities of water uncontrollably. Symptoms of DI include extreme thirst and the production of tremendous quantities of urine. Patients with DI typically drink huge amounts of water, and usually report a specific craving for cold diabetes and free water. These symptoms include weakness, fatiguefever, low blood pressure, increased heart rate, dizzinessdiabetes and free water, and confusion.
If left untreated, the patient could lapse into unconsciousness and die. Diagnosis should be suspected in any patient with sudden increased thirst and urination. Laboratory examination of urine will reveal very dilute urine, made up mostly of water with no solute. Examination of the blood will reveal very concentrated blood, high in solute and low in fluid volume.
A water deprivation test may be performed. This test requires a patient to stop all fluid intake. The patient is weighed just before the test begins, and urine is collected and examined hourly.
The test is stopped when:. The next step of the test involves injecting a synthetic form of ADH, with one last urine sample examined 60 minutes later. Comparing plasma and urine osmolality allows the doctor to diagnose either central DI, nephrogenic DI, partial DI, or psychogenic polydipsia. A number of medications can be given to decrease the quantity of fluid passed out into the urine. Other medications that may be given include some antidiuretic drugs chlorpropamide, clofibrate, carbamazepine.
Patients with nephrogenic DI, however, will also require special diets that restrict the amount of solute taken in. These patients are also treated with a type of medication called a thiazide diuretic. Uncomplicated diabetes insipidus is controllable with adequate intake of water and most patients can lead normal lives. Concentration — Refers to the amount of solute present in a solution, compared to the total amount of solvent.
Dilute — A solution that has comparatively more fluid in it, relative to the quantity of solute. Osmolality — A measure of the solute-to-solvent concentration of a solution. Solute — Solid substances that are dissolved in liquid in order to make a solution. Singer, Irwin, et al, diabetes and free water. A chronic disorder marked by excessive urination and usually intense thirst and dehydration, caused either by insufficient production or release of the pituitary hormone vasopressin or by inability of the kidneys to respond coastal allergy and asthma to vasopressin.
It is characterized by copious excretion diabetes and free water urine and excessive thirst, caused by deficient production or secretion of the antidiuretic hormone ADH or inability of the kidney tubules to respond to ADH.
Rarely the symptoms are self-induced by an excessive water intake, diabetes and free water. The condition may be acquired, familial, idiopathic, neurogenic, nephrogenic, or psychogenic. Diagnosis is established by a water deprivation test in which urine volume increases and urine osmolality decreases. A person with diabetes insipidus who is unconscious diabetes and free water result of trauma or surgery continues to produce massive quantities of urine.
If fluids are not administered in adequate amounts, the patient becomes severely dehydrated and hypernatremic. Vasopressin in an intramuscular injection or nasal spray is effective.
Therefore exceedingly careful monitoring is essential when the condition is suspected, especially after head surgery or trauma. Chronic excretion of very large amounts of pale urine of low specific gravity, causing dehydration and extreme thirst; ordinarily results from inadequate output of pituitary antidiuretic hormone.
Chronic excretion of very large amounts of pale urine of low specific gravity, causing dehydration and extreme thirst. As a consequence, diabetes and free water, there is the passage of a large amount of urine having a low specific gravity, and great thirst.
It may be acquired through infection, neoplasm or trauma to the posterior lobe of the diabetes and free water gland or it may be inherited or idiopathic. Called also central diabetes insipidus. The polyuria is secondary to diabetes and free water excessive water intake.
Called also dipsogenic diabetes insipidus.