Academic dress is a traditional form of clothing for academic settings, mainly tertiary and sometimes secondary education, worn mainly by those who have been admitted to a university degree or similaror hold a status that entitles them to assume them e.
Contemporarily, it is commonly seen only at graduation ceremonies, but formerly academic dress was, and to a lesser degree in many ancient universities still is, doctoral caps and gowns, worn daily.
Today, the ensembles are distinctive in some way to each institution, and generally consist of a gown also known as a robe with a separate hoodand usually a cap generally either a square academic capa tamor a bonnet. Academic dress is also worn by members of certain learned societies and institutions as official dress. The academic dress found in most universities in the Commonwealth of Nations and the United States is derived from that of the universities of Oxford and Cambridgewhich was a development of academic and clerical dress common throughout the medieval universities of Europe.
Formal or sober clothing is typically worn beneath the gown so, for example, men would often wear a dark suit with a white shirt and a tiedoctoral caps and gowns, or clerical clothingmilitary or civil uniformor national dressand women would wear equivalent attire. Some older universities, particularly Oxford and Cambridge, have a prescribed set of doctoral caps and gowns known as subfusc to be worn under the gown.
Although some universities are relaxed about what people wear under their gowns, it is nevertheless considered bad form to be in casual wear or the like during graduation ceremonies, and a number of universities may bar finishing students from joining the procession or the ceremony itself if not appropriately dressed  though this sometimes refers only to requiring the proper wear of academic dress and not what is worn beneath it, if unseen.
In the Commonwealth, gowns are worn open, while in the United States, it has become common for gowns to close at the front, as did the original roba. In general, the materials used for academic dress are heavily influenced by the climate where the academic institution is located, or the climate where the graduate will usually be wearing the costume as a faculty member at another institution, for example.
In either case, the American Council of Education ACE allows for the comfort of the wearer, and concedes that lighter materials be used in tropical climates, and heavier materials elsewhere.
The materials used for academic dress vary doctoral caps and gowns range from the extremely economical to the very expensive.
For some doctoral graduates, commencement will be the only time they wear academic regalia, and so they rent their gowns instead of buying them. These rented or hired  gowns are often made of inexpensive polyester or other man-made synthetic fibre. In Britain, rented gowns are almost always polyester while Russell cordsilk, or artificial silk gowns are only available when bought. Undergraduate gowns are usually made from cotton or cotton and polyester mix and are relatively inexpensive to encourage students to own them.
Pure Ottoman silk is rarely used except for official gowns, as it is very expensive. In the past, fur has been used to line certain hoods especially those of the UK which range from rabbit to ermine. In the past, sheepskin was widely used. Most now use imitation fur, instead, mainly because of cost and animal rights concerns.
Some robe makers use fur if the customer requests and pays for it, as some feel that the quality and feel of artificial fur has yet to match that of real fur, doctoral caps and gowns. Many doctoral gowns have a special undress version so adding to the cost of a full set. As such, suppliers of academic dress produce gowns in many different sizes to fit persons of different heights. In Doctoral caps and gownsacademic regalia are worn by university officials, doctoral caps and gowns, students, and honoured guests during Graduation exercises commonly referred to as Convocationinstallations of their presiding officers, and special convocations, doctoral caps and gowns, such as the inauguration of newly endowed professorial chairs and inductions to some of the honour and professional societies with university chapters.
Academic regalia typically consist of a headgear mortarboardTudor bonnetor John Knox doctoral caps and gownsrobe, and hood.
Until the s, Canadian universities customarily prescribed academic robes for its professors and students at classes and lectures. At the University of Trinity College at the University of Toronto, doctoral caps and gowns, academic gowns are still required for all students and faculty at Wednesday dinners, most college meetings, debates, doctoral caps and gowns certain special college events. Most Canadian universities follow or adopted either the British University academic dress at Oxford or Cambridge doctoral caps and gowns,   or the Intercollegiate Code of Academic Costume ratified by most American universities in the doctoral caps and gowns s.
A classic example is the academic dress of McGill Universitywhose British origins are evident in the regalia of its degree holders. The scarlet, doctor of philosophy Ph. It is nowadays little worn, except by doctors during the opening of the university year or the ceremony for a doctorate honoris causa. For doctors, it consists of:. Professors who served 20 years are sometimes presented with a sword identical model to that of French police commissars.
The colours of the various academic fields are daffodil yellow for literature and arts, amaranth purplish red for science, redcurrant reddish pink for medicine, scarlet red for law, and violet purple for theology. University rectors, chancellors or presidents wear also specific costumes, which are violet regardless of the academic field in which they graduated. The dress exists in two versions: Both are identical in form, doctoral caps and gowns, and differ only in the presence or absence of the mortarboard and the repartition of colours on the gown and sash doctoral caps and gowns other elements of the dress, especially the epitoga, being identical for both:.
In formal occasions, the grand costume is equivalent to white tiedoctoral caps and gowns, whereas the petit costume is equivalent to black tie. German academic dress generally consists of gown and cap. Nowadays, if in use at all, it is only found at special occasions, such as public processions, inaugurations of rectors, and graduation ceremonies. Historically, only the rectors, deans, professors, and lecturers wore academic dress—not students or graduates, doctoral caps and gowns.
Each German university had its own system of colours and drapings to signify faculty membership and position in the university hierarchy. The gown of the German academic dress is called "Talar" with the accent on the second "a": It can be traced back to the every day clothes of doctoral caps and gowns scholars in the Middle Ages. The same word Talar is also used for the robes of Protestant Lutheran pastors and rabbis not for judges or lawyers, their gowns are called "Robe"although these gowns often differ more or less in cut, length, drappings, and sometimes even in colour the gowns of the German Supreme Court are, doctoral caps and gowns, e.
The professorial Talar can be described as a long black gown with wide sleeves, often with lapels in faculty colour, while deans wear a Talar completely in faculty colour.
Rectors typically have a distinguished, more elaborate Talare. As is the case with the Talarwhich type of cap is used varies by university as well.
Historically, caps made of soft materials rather than the square academic cap are common. The colour of the Barett matches the Talar. After the German student movementfollowing the years of all West German universities dropped their academic dress because they were identified with right-winged conservatism and reactionism by the mostly socialist influenced students at that time: The famous slogan "Unter den Talaren — Muff von Jahren" beneath the gowns the fug of years refers not only to the old traditions of the Middle Ages, but also to the Nazi regime and their self-declared "empire of years".
After East Germany began to dissolve inseveral universities, doctoral caps and gowns, particularly University of Rostock University of Greifswald University of Jena and University of Halle-Wittenberg resurrected lost traditions including the Talar for officials.
Some traditional universities in West German states have since followed, such as University of Heidelberg. Sincesome universities introduced centrally organized graduation ceremonies for students of all faculties where academic dress is worn, most notably University of Bonn Chemnitz University of Technology and RWTH Aachen only cap and stole.
At most other universities, faculties are responsible for organizing graduation ceremonies individually. Some faculties have decided for wearing academic dress at their ceremonies as well, e. In Indonesia, academic regalia, also called a doctoral caps and gowns is only worn in graduation ceremonies.
An Indonesian toga generally comes in three pieces of clothing: Other items are also worn during graduation ceremony such as a medalliontippet or academic stole. In Italy there are several differences among the typical academic dress gownsacademic capsetc. Usually gowns are worn only by professors during ceremonies and, in some faculties, during graduations. After the student protests of many professors in many universities had stopped wearing academical gowns also in the formal occasions but since the nineties people have started to use them again, mostly in humanities faculties.
Doctoral caps and gowns Malaysia, most public university academic gowns incorporate Songket motifs. At Dutch universities, academic dress does not come with a degree but with the incumbency of a professorial chair: The beret is usually a soft cap, square or round and made of velvet; the gown ankle-length, open in the frontis made of wool trimmed with velvet or silk It is traditionally black, as in the robes of early-modern humanists; some universities have gowns with wide slashed sleeves edged in faculty-specific colours, others have a decorated sleeve but without specific faculty colours.
Recently established universities may show a greater variety of colours. Academic dress is only worn on ceremonial occasions: Male professors remove their beret when sitting down and put it on when standing up e. Female professors may keep the beret on at all times. Academic dress may be completed by a chain of office for the presiding Rector or Dean or the insignia of honorary doctorates or royal orders only worn at the dies natalis, doctoral caps and gowns.
University graduates in New Zealand wear an doctoral caps and gowns gown identical to those of the University of Cambridge  and either a hood or scarf, doctoral caps and gowns, depending on whether the graduate is receiving a degree or diploma. If the graduate is receiving a degree, doctoral caps and gowns, a hood  will be worn throughout the ceremony. If a diploma is received, the graduate will wear a diploma scarf.
The hood, like the gown, is identical to that of the hood for the Cambridge Master of Arts. A doctoral degree recipient wears the same as a graduate receiving a Masters, except the gown is completely silk, either black or scarlet, with the option to wear a cloth gown.
Most colleges and universities in the Philippines follows the traditional mortarboardhood and gown during graduation. Some schools like the University of Santo Tomasdue to its Spanish heritage, doctoral caps and gowns, follows the Spanish academic attire such as the academic biretta and mozetta.
The birreta and mozetta are worn by those from the Graduate School and the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery. The professors of the University wear their academic regalia during the Missa de Apertura or the Diabetes and hemodyalsis Mass of the Academic Year aside from Solemn Investitures graduation ceremonies and other academic activities.
The academic colours are unique to this university as these depend on the official color of the faculty or college a student or an academe belongs into.
A unique graduation garb by the University of the Philippines is the use of the Sablay. It features the indigenous baybayin characters for "U" and "P". Elementary and high school students also wear a certain kind of academic dress upon their graduation, usually a white gown and mortarboard for public schools.
There are several schools which make use of a hood-like design on top of their gowns which bears the school colors. The Rector Magnificus of the University of Santo Tomas in full Spanish academic attire, wearing the academic biretta and the mozetta over the Dominican habit, doctoral caps and gowns.
The wearing of traditional academic dress is an important feature of Polish educational ceremonies. Academic dress varies from university to university. In some situations the hat is not used, e. In Portugal, following an ancient tradition, university regular students also use a specific dressing.
Taiwan academic dress generally consists of gown and cap. Nowadays, it is only found at special occasions, such as graduation ceremonies. Academic dress in South Africa varies from one institution to another, but generally follow UK patterns. These days, academic dress is only used at graduation ceremonies. The wearing of traditional African attire, doctoral caps and gowns modern clothes inspired by traditional attire, beneath the academic dress has been a distinct trend in recent years.
This article is partially translated from es: The typical Spanish academic dress has Latin origin. It has been regulated sincewhen Queen Isabella II established several rules about academic dress, according to the centuries-old Spanish custom. The typical Spanish academic dress for doctors is composed by:.